Technical session talks from ICRA 2012
TechTalks from event: Technical session talks from ICRA 2012
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A New Hand-Held Force-Amplifying Device for MicromanipulationAbstractâ€” This paper presents a new hand-held device capable of amplifying delicate micromanipulation forces during minimal invasive surgical tasks. It relays force sensing to the user through a simple sliding feature that is coupled to the surgical tool, which translates relative to the casing of the device held by the operator. This forgoes the need of grounding frames or anchoring mechanisms to the body, allowing the device to be used in general surgical environments without affecting the workflow. The device uses a three-phase linear motor that is compact and capable of generating high forces that allow amplification factors of up to Ã—15. It features a closed-loop force control scheme to perform the required force amplification in which the force exerted on to the user is measured, forming the feedback in the control loop. The device permits interchangeability of instrumentation through a simple docking feature, and thus can be generalized to a range of surgical instruments for micromanipulation tasks. Detailed bench test and user trials have been performed to validate the accuracy and practical performance of the device. The results have shown a five times reduction of the minimum force threshold perceived by the subjects and ergonomically sound manipulation advantages.
An Optical Actuation System and Curvature Sensor for a MR-Compatible Active NeedleA side optical actuation method is presented for a slender MR-compatible active needle. The needle includes an active region with a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuator, where the wire generates a contraction force when optically heated by a laser delivered though optical fibers, producing needle tip bending. A prototype, with multiple side heating spots, demonstrates twice as fast an initial response compared to fiber tip heating when 0.8 W of optical power is applied. A single-ended optical sensor with a gold reflector is also presented to measure the curvature independently of temperature as a function of optical transmission loss. Preliminary tests with the sensor prototype demonstrate approximately linear response and a repeatable signal, independent of the bending history.
Semi-automatic needle steering system with robotic manipulatorThis paper presents a semi-automatic system for robotically assisted 2D needle steering that uses duty-cycling to perform insertions with arcs of adjustable curvature radius. It combines image feedback manually provided by an operator with an adaptive path planning strategy to compensate for system uncertainties and changes in the workspace during the procedure. Experimental results are presented to validate the proposed platform.
Torsional Dynamics Compensation Enhances Robotic Control of Tip-Steerable NeedlesNeedle insertions serve a critical role in a wide variety of medical interventions. Steerable needles provide a means by which to enhance existing percutaneous procedures and afford the development of entirely new ones. Here, we present a new time-varying model for the torsional dynamics of a steerable needle, along with a new controller that takes advantage of the model. The torsional model incorporates time-varying mode shapes to capture the changing boundary conditions caused during insertion of the needle into the tissue. Extensive simulations demonstrate the improvement over a model that neglects torsional dynamics, and illustrates the possible effect of torsional model order on efficacy. Pilot feedback control experiments, conducted in artificial tissue (plastisol) under stereo image guidance, validate the overall approach: our results substantially out-perform previously reported experimental results on controlling tip-steerable needles.
The Impact of Interaction Model on Stability and Transparency in Bilateral Teleoperation for Medical ApplicationsAn analysis of stability and transparency of a force feedback teleoperation system for cutting-edge robotic surgery is presented. Previous works in teleoperated robotic surgery do not consider the real behavior of the environment, which was supposed to be only elastic. However, new surgical procedures in which the environment dynamics plays a crucial role start emerging as a result of technological progress. In robotic assisted beating-heart surgery, for instance, the dynamics of the contact between surgical tools and soft tissues has an impact not only in the performance of the force control task but also in the performance of the teleoperation control scheme in terms of transparency and stability. Therefore, a more realistic description of the environment has to be adopted in order to safely operate during robot-patient interaction. For this purpose, a viscoelastic contact model is introduced into the bilateral teleoperation scheme, and a performance study is provided. The obtained results show the advantages of the selected approach when targeting teleoperated surgical interventions in which the interaction dynamics has become a significant issue.