TechTalks from event: Technical session talks from ICRA 2012

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Medical Robotics I

  • Metal MEMS Tools for Beating-Heart Tissue Removal Authors: Gosline, Andrew; Vasilyev, Nikolay; Veeramani, Arun; Wu, MingTing; Schmitz, Greg; Chen, Rich; Arabagi, Veaceslav; del Nido, Pedro; Dupont, Pierre
    A novel robotic tool is proposed to enable the surgical removal of tissue from inside the beating heart. The tool is manufactured using a unique metal MEMS process that provides the means to fabricate fully assembled devices that incorporate micron-scale features in a millimeter scale tool. The tool is integrated with a steerable curved concentric tube robot that can enter the heart through the vasculature. Incorporating both irrigation and aspiration, the tissue removal system is capable of extracting substantial amounts of tissue under teleoperated control by first morselizing it and then transporting the debris out of the heart through the lumen of the robot. Tool design and robotic integration are described and ex vivo experimental results are presented.
  • Motion Planning for Multiple Millimeter-Scale Magnetic Capsules in a Fluid Environment Authors: Vartholomeos, Panagiotis; Akhavan-Sharif, Reza; Dupont, Pierre
    There are many examples of minimally invasive surgery in which tethered robots are incapable of accurately reaching target locations deep inside the body either because they are too large and so cause tissue damage or because the tortuosity of the path leads to loss of tip control. In these situations, small untethered magnetically-powered robots may hold the potential to act as delivery vehicles for therapeutic agents. While MRI scanners provide a means to power, control and image such robots as they move throughout the body, a substantial challenge arises if the clinical application requires more than one such robot. The resulting system is underactuated and thus its controllability is in question. This paper presents a simple motion planning algorithm for two magnetic capsules and demonstrates through simulation and experiment that nonlinear fluid damping can be exploited to independently control the positions of the capsules.
  • Geometry Effect of Preloading Probe on Accurate Needle Insertion for Breast Tumor Treatment Authors: HATANO, Maya; Kobayashi, Yo; SUZUKI, Makiko; Fujie, Masakatsu G.
    We herein describe a needle insertion method involving tissue preloading for accurate breast tumor treatment. A mechanical preloading probe locates a tumor lesion from ultrasound imaging information and reduces lesion displacement during needle insertion by pressing the breast tissue. We validated the insertion accuracy of this method by numerical simulation and experiments both in vitro and in vivo. For further accuracy enhancement, we evaluated the geometry effect of the preloading probe on needle insertion accuracy by experiments in vitro. We compared the insertion accuracy between insertion with preloading using different probe diameters and normal needle insertion. In addition, we compared insertion accuracy at different tumor depths. The data indicated a tendency for adaptation of larger preloading probe diameters with deeper tumors. This suggests the potential for our method to enhance placement accuracy by real-time geometry regulation.
  • A MRI-Guided Concentric Tube Continuum Robot with Piezoelectric Actuation: A Feasibility Study Authors: Su, Hao; Cardona, Diana; Shang, Weijian; Cole, Gregory; Rucker, Caleb; Webster III, Robert James; Fischer, Gregory Scott
    This paper presents a versatile magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible concentric tube continuum robotic system. The system enables MR image-guided placement of a curved, steerable active cannula. It is suitable for a variety of clinical applications including image-guided neurosurgery and percutaneous interventions, along with procedures that involve accessing a desired image target, through a curved trajectory. The robotic device is piezoelectrically actuated to provide precision motion with joint-level precision of better than 0.03mm, and is fully MRI-compatible allowing simultaneous cannula motion and imaging with no image quality degradation. The MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3 Tesla MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences, with an average signal to noise ratio loss of less than 2% during actuator motion. The accuracy of active cannula control was evaluated in benchtop trials using an external optical tracking system with RMS error in tip placement of 1.00 mm. Preliminary phantom trials of three active cannula placements in the MRI scanner showed cannula trajectories that agree with our kinematic model, with a RMS tip placement error of 0.61 - 2.24 mm.
  • Design and Analysis of 6 DOF Handheld Micromanipulator Authors: Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron
    This paper presents the design and analysis of a handheld manipulator for vitreoretinal microsurgery and other biomedical applications. The design involves a parallel micromanipulator utilizing six piezoelectric linear actuators, combining compactness with a large range of motion and relatively high stiffness. Given the available force of the actuators, the overall dimension of the micromanipulator was optimized considering realistic external loads on a remote center of motion representing the point of expected contact with the sclera of the eye during microsurgery. Based on optimization and workspace analysis, a benchtop version of the micromanipulator was built with a base diameter of 25 mm and a height of 50 mm. It provides a hemispherical workspace of 4.0 mm diameter at the tool tip. The manipulation performance of the constructed manipulator was measured under a lateral load applied at the remote center of motion. The micromanipulator tolerated side loads up to 200 mN.
  • An Impedance Control Strategy for a Hand-Held Instrument to Compensate for Physiological Motion Authors: Florez, Juan Manuel; Szewczyk, Jérôme; Morel, Guillaume
    Current trends in robotic cardiac surgery presage for allowing physiological motion compensation in beating-heart surgery. However, interacting with fast moving soft organs by means of stiff instruments/robots is challenging. This paper concerns comanipulation with a hand-held instrument, the goal being to allow the surgeon to perform low frequency motions that correspond to the surgical task while a distal part of the instrument actively moves in synchronism with the heart motion in order to guarantee that the contact is maintained. This paper explores the difficulties of implementing owimpedance control on a novel hand-held motion compensation instrument. A force feedback control strategy is proposed and evaluated experimentally on a simulated surgical scene. Taking advantage of the sensory capacities of the prototype resented, a successful modulation of the dynamics of interaction is reached. Conclusive results on the performances of the system and possibilities of future improvements are given.